[5] At the time, kale was widely grown in Croatia mostly because it was easy to grow and inexpensive, and could desalinate soil. A story is told in which a neighbouring village offered to pay a generous price for some kale seeds, an offer too good to turn down. The wild mustard that has become the ancestor of all of our B. oleracea variations has large, flat, elongated leaves that grow in a cluster at the base of a central stalk, much the way kale grows today. Because kale can grow well into winter, one variety of rape kale is called "hungry gap" after the period in winter in traditional agriculture when little else could be harvested. Confusing Kale – Annual, Biennial, or Perennial? So Many Varieties of Kale! Bumpy-leaf (black cabbage, better known by its Italian translation 'cavolo nero', and also known as Tuscan Cabbage, Tuscan Kale, Plain-leaf (flat-leaf types like red Russian and white Russian kale), Leaf and spear, or feathery-type leaf (a cross between curly- and plain-leaf), Ornamental (less palatable and tougher leaves), This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 20:53. Kale’s ancestor, the original Brassica oleracea, a wild mustard that still exists, was once the one and only Brassica oleracea. balcony garden). Kale can be grown anywhere you have space for it. [30] It is popular on Halloween,[31] when it may be served with sausages. [23], In the Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called "boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, and served with rookworst ("smoked sausage"). [28] Additional ingredients can include broth and sliced, cooked spicy sausage. It keeps producing leaves through the winter in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 7 through 10. In a 100 g (3 1⁄2 oz) serving, raw kale provides 207 kilojoules (49 kilocalories) of food energy and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value (DV) (table). In Scotland, kale provided such a base for a traditional diet that the word in some Scots dialects is synonymous with food. The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, which included J. M. Barrie (creator of Peter Pan), consisted of authors who wrote about traditional rural Scottish life (kailyard = 'kale field'). Kale microgreens are much faster to grow, but you don’t get those lush, tasty leaves! [33], A traditional New Years Danish dish: boiled ham, glazed potatoes and stewed kale, Curly kale, one of the many varieties of kale, Bailey, L. H., (1912, republished in 1975). [13] Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, but potentially not as palatable. [3], Russian kale was introduced into Canada, and then into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century. It is usually grouped into the cooking greens category with collards, mustard, and Swiss chard, but it is actually more of a non-heading cabbage. Kale is a powerhouse of nutrients. Baby kale leaves are ready to pick in just a few weeks after seeding. Kale is an easy crop for all gardeners to grow, and it does great in containers and pots too. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the 4th century BC. Jersey kale Photo. The kale plant comes from the cabbage family and is classified as a leafy green vegetable. The different types of ornamental kale are peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale and chidori kale. [8] It is hardy and thrives in wintertime,[8] and can survive in temperatures as low as –15° Celsius. Leaf and spear kale, a cross between curly-leaf and plain-leaf kale. Kale plants have green or purple leaves, and the central leaves do not form a head (as with headed cabbage). [3] USDA botanist David Fairchild is credited with introducing kale (and many other crops) to Americans,[4][5] having brought it back from Croatia,[5] although Fairchild himself disliked cabbages, including kale. Kale (/keɪl/), or leaf cabbage, belongs to a group of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivars grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals. [24], In Northern Germany, there is a winter tradition known as "Kohlfahrt" ("kale trip"), where a group of people will go on a hike through the woods during the day before gathering at an inn where kale is served, usually with bacon and Kohlwurst ("kale sausage"). Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan.. It is a rich source (20% or more of the DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, and manganese (see table "Kale, raw"). [20], Kale contains high levels of polyphenols, such as ferulic acid,[21] with levels varying due to environmental and genetic factors. How to Choose? It grew in countries around the Mediterranean and on the French and British coasts. To maximize their harvests, both the Greeks and Romans selectively saved and sowed seeds from the plants that produced the most leaves, so the plants more closely resembled our kale and collards. These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. The soil should have a pH balance between 5.5 and 6.8. Check out this list of local kale growers in San Luis Obispo here! I often see cities use kale as an ornamental addition to flower plantings. [7], Kale is usually an annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of germination temperatures. Tree kale and walking stick kale require lots of space, since they should be planted 20 to 40 inches apart if you want to grow them full size to harvest larger leaves. In fact, tree kale is grown along the California coast and in Hawaii. In Portugal, the bumpy-leaved kale is mostly called "couve galega" (Galician kale or Portuguese Cabbage). Where to Grow Kale. To be "off one's kail" is to feel too ill to eat.[29]. [18], Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas steaming, microwaving or stir frying does not cause significant loss. [5], During World War II, the cultivation of kale (and other vegetables) in the U.K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The Japanese created broccolini, a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, also known as Chinese broccoli, in 1993, and they also developed several varieties of ornamental kale. Kale is a cold-hardy crop that can be planted in early spring or late summer. [1], Kale originates from Northern Middle English cale (compare Scots kail) for various cabbages. [9] Kale can become sweeter after a heavy frost.[10]. Kale can be grown all over the country, but is most successful in areas with warm weather and milder winters (um… SLO). These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. Thanks to differences in human preferences, though, we now have kale, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collards, and kohlrabi with new B. oleracea cultivars still emerging as new preferences develop. II--crops, "Is Ornamental Kale Edible? Dive into our Kale Growing guide for information on planting, growing, and harvesting this hard-working beauty. Cool weather brings out the sweet, nutty flavor of this highly nutritious leafy green. Kale, or Brassica oleracea, is a leafy cultivar of cabbage. Tuscan kale, a variety of bumpy-leaf kale. Learn how to grow kale from seeds or transplants and then harvest kale so it keeps growing. Bumpy leaf kale, also known as dinosaur kale because it looks like dinosaur skin. Disregarding the disagreement among members of the kale family over whether warm or cool climates are better, all kales otherwise have similar preferences. As early as the fourth century B.C., the Greeks had transformed wild mustard into flat-leaved and curly-leaved, loose-leafed cabbages, which they grew as food and for medicinal uses. [19] Kale is high in oxalic acid, the levels of which can be reduced by cooking. The Romans called these ancestors of modern kale “Sabellian kale”, and from the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans through the Middle Ages, kale was one of the most common vegetables grown in Europe. [22], Flavored "kale chips" have been produced as a potato chip substitute. Kale is a good choice for those with limited space (e.g. For example, the colonists brought kale to North America in the 1500s, and then after 1600, farmers developed cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, and Brussels sprouts. Kale normally is grown as an annual even though kale actually has a biennial life cycle that takes two years to complete. It is also known as curly-leafed cabbage. [12], Many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown mainly for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette. An extra-tall variety is known as dinosaur kale because it looks like dinosaur.. That takes two years to complete oxalic acid, the bumpy-leaved kale is composed of 84 where is kale grown,! 1 ], kale originates from Northern Middle English cale ( compare Scots kail ) for cabbages. To Canada in the 1800s by russian traders into the United States on shovel! 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